The following is a partial listing of the international clients or U.S. clients for whom the Washington, D.C. office of Duncan & Allen has provided substantial legal services on matters outside of the United States since the mid-1970's.
Presentation and participation in the September 1997 Seminar on "O Desenvolvimento do Sector Mineiro em Angola". Comparative analysis and advice on preparation of new mining law and regulations; Result: Draft of new Mining Law and Regulation presented to Ministry, February 1999
Advice on the process for obtaining investment certification under the Law on Major Investments in the Mining Sector of Madagascar. Advice to legal counsel concerning the interpretation of said law in connection with the permanent financing of the Ambatovy nickel project.
Comité de Pilotage de la Réforme des Entreprises Publiques (COPIREP)
Research, comparative analysis, public presentations, advice and drafting of a new Mining Code and Regulation, including comprehensive environmental regulations for various types of mining; Result: Enactment of new Mining Code, July 2002.; Adoption of new Mining Regulation, March 2003.
Kinshasa, D. R. Congo – [1998- 2002]
Ministère des Mines et Hydrocarbures and Bureau Central de Coordination (BCECO)
Legal Evaluation of the Joint Venture Agreements of the state-owned mining company, Gécamines, including drafting of a model request for proposals and a model mineral lease agreement, and advice on the restructuring of Gécamines into a holding company; Result: Final Report delivered in August 2006, which has led to a reorientation of the client’s plans for the transformation of Gécamines and the negotiation or renegotiation of its joint ventures.
Advice and assistance with quarterly and annual reports to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; [1988-1989]: Advice on legal questions involved in issuing and marketing a new form of bond in various African jurisdictions, for capital market stimulation.
Advice on new mining policy; preparation of mining tax legislation and a model investment and participation agreement in collaboration with Latin American mining law experts; Result: Mining Law adopted in 1992.
Advice and assistance in preparing a national mining policy, and proposed amendments to the Mining Code and Mining Regulation; Result: National Mining Policy agreed to by High Level Commission representing stakeholders.
Research, advice and legal assistance in preparing: (1) Mining Policy Decree; and (2) New Mining Code; Result: Décret No. 98/384 portant Déclaration de la Politique Minière, adopted May 1998. Loi No. 99/022 portant Code Minier, enacted August 1999
Antananarivo, Madagascar - [1997-1998]
Ministère de l’Energie et des Mines (PSRM)
Research, advice and assistance in preparing: (1) Implementing Regulation for the new Mining Code; (2) Environmental regulations for the mining sector; and (3) Law on Major Investments in the Mining Sector, and related implementing regulations; Result: Décret d’Application No. 2000/170, adopted March 2000. Interministerial Environmental regulations for the mining sector adopted November 2000. Law on Major Investments in the Mining Sector (LGIM) enacted October 2002.
Antananarivo, Madagascar - [1999- 2001]
Ministère de l’Energie et des Mines (PGRM)
Advice and representation for purposes of resolution of a dispute between a multinational mining company and the Central Bureau of the Mining Cadastre of Madagascar (BCCM) involving annual payment obligations and preemptive rights, also affecting another foreign mining company; Result: Dispute resolved within ten months on a basis acceptable to the BCCM, without litigation or arbitration.
Antananarivo, Madagascar - 
Ministère de l’Energie et des Mines (PGRM)
Advice and assistance in preparing: (1) Amendment to the Mining Code of 1999; and (2) Amendment to the Law on Major Investments in the Mining Sector of 2003; Result: Loi No. 2005-025 portant modification de la Loi No. 99/022 portant Code Minier, adopted July 13, 2005 ; Loi No. 2005-026 modifying the Law on Major Investments in the Mining Sector of 2003, adopted July 13, 2005.
Substantial revision of the Implementing Decree of the Mining Code and the Tax Regulation as applied to the Mining Sector; Result: Adoption of the Revised Implementing Decree for the Mining Code and the Tax Regulation as applied to the Mining Sector, 1999.
Research, comparative analysis, advice and drafting assistance with the preparation of new mining legislation; Result: New Minerals Law, enacted July 1997.
Ulaanbataar, Mongolia – 
American-Mongolian Business Group
Presentation on Recent International Trends in Mining Law at Conference on “Mongolia’s Minerals Law - A Framework for Sustainable Development”; Result: Prevented regressive amendments to 1997 Minerals Law of Mongolia.
Fact finding mission to Nigeria, discussions with government officials and private sector representatives, analysis of Nigerian legal materials and preparation of chapter on legal framework in "Strategic Review of the Solid Minerals Sector of Nigeria". Presentation and participation in Workshop on Strategies for the Sustainable Development of Solid Minerals in Nigeria, "The Legal and Fiscal Framework Needed to Attract Investment”; [Urumqi, China; 2000]
Fact finding mission to Saudi Arabia; discussions with government officials and mining company representatives in Riyadh and Jeddah; comparative analysis of Saudi legal materials and preparation of chapters on strategic analysis of Saudi Minerals Sector; Presentations on successful reforms of mining laws, "The Enabling Framework For Attracting Private Investment in Mining" and "Legal Reform for Mining Development - The Recent Experience of Successful Mining Countries" and participation in workshop on Saudi Mining Strategy; Result: Successful workshop on mining sector strategy and re-focusing of ongoing mining law revision effort.
Advice on financing of a coal mine project in Venezuela.
Lexington, Kentucky – [1990-1991]
Advice on structuring and documentation for establishment of research center in Africa as a joint venture between private and public entities; Result: Trust Agreement for new research center, 1991.
Washington, DC – [1990-1991]
U.S.A.I.D. (Private Sector Energy Development Program) and the World Bank (Asia Technical Division)
Preparation of paper entitled “Legal and Economic Aspects of Joint Ventures” for the conference on Private Participation in the Columbian Electric Power Sector at Cartagena, Colombia, August 28-30, 1991. Analysis of legal, fiscal, institutional and contractual aspects of private investments in coal and power projects in China, Indonesia and the Philippines; preparation and editing of report, Private Investment in Power and Coal in Asia-Selected Case Studies and Lessons, January 31, 1992.